A thorough introduction to fundamental principles and applications

From its beginnings in metallurgy and ceramics, materials science now encompasses such high- tech fields as microelectronics, polymers, biomaterials, and nanotechnology. Electronic Materials Science presents the fundamentals of the subject in a detailed fashion for a multidisciplinary audience. Offering a higher-level treatment than an undergraduate textbook provides, this text benefits students and practitioners not only in electronics and optical materials science, but also in additional cutting-edge fields like polymers and biomaterials.

Readers with a basic understanding of physical chemistry or physics will appreciate the text’s sophisticated presentation of today’s materials science. Instructive derivations of important formulae, usually omitted in an introductory text, are included here. This feature offers a useful glimpse into the foundations of how the discipline understands such topics as defects, phase equilibria, and mechanical properties. Additionally, concepts such as reciprocal space, electron energy band theory, and thermodynamics enter the discussion earlier and in a more robust fashion than in other texts.

Electronic Materials Science also features:

* An orientation towards industry and academia drawn from the author’s experience in both arenas

* Information on applications in semiconductors, optoelectronics, photocells, and nanoelectronics

* Problem sets and important references throughout

* Flexibility for various pedagogical needs

Treating the subject with more depth than any other introductory text, Electronic Materials Science prepares graduate and upper-level undergraduate students for advanced topics in the discipline and gives scientists in associated disciplines a clear review of the field and its leading technologies.

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Electronic Materials Science

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Structure and Diffraction

1.3 Defects

1.4 Diffusion

1.5 Phase Equilibria

1.6 Mechanical Properties

1.7 Electronic Structure

1.8 Electronic Properties and Devices

1.9 Electronic Materials Science

Chapter 2 – Structure of Solids

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Order

2.3 The Lattice

2.4 Crystal Structure

2.5 Notation

2.5.1 Naming Planes

2.5.2 Lattice Directions

2.6 Lattice Geometry

2.6.1 Planar Spacing Formulas

2.6.2 Close Packing

2.7 The Wigner-Seitz Cell

2.8 Crystal Structures

2.8.1 Structures for Elements

2.8.2 Structures for Compounds

2.8.3 Solid Solutions

Chapter 3 – Diffraction

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The Phase Difference and Bragg’s Law

3.3 The Scattering Problem

3.3.1 Coherent Scattering From an Electron

3.3.2 Coherent Scattering From an Atom

3.3.3 Coherent Scattering From a Unit Cell

3.3.4 Structure Factor Calculations

3.4 Reciprocal Space, RESP

3.4.1 Why Reciprocal Space?

3.4.2 Definition of RESP

3.4.3 The Ewald Construction

3.5 Diffraction Techniques

3.5.1 Rotating Crystal Method

3.5.2 Powder Method

3.5.3 Laue Method

3.6 Wave Vector Representation

Chapter 4 – Defects in Solids

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Why do defects form?

4.2.1 A Review of Some Thermodynamics Ideas

4.2.1.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics

4.2.1.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

4.2.1.3 The Notion of State

4.2.1.4 The Boltzmann Relationship

4.3 Point Defects

4.4 The Statistics of Point Defects

4.5 Line Defects – Dislocations

4.5.1 Edge Dislocations

4.5.2 Screw Dislocations

4.5.3 Burgers Vector and The Burgers Circuit

4.5.4 Dislocation Motion

4.6 Planar Defects

4.6.1Grain Boundaries

4.6.2 Twin Boundaries

4.7 Three Dimensional Defects

Chapter 5 – Diffusion in Solids

5.1 Introduction to Diffusion Equations

5.2 Atomistic Theory of Diffusion: Fick’s Laws and a Theory for D

5.3 Random Walk Problem

5.3.1 Random Walk Calculations

5.3.2 Relation of D to Random Walk

5.3.3 Self Diffusion Vacancy Mechanism in a FCC Crystal

5.3.4 Activation Energy for Diffusion

5.4 Other Mass Transport Mechanisms

5.4.1 Permeability vs Diffusion

5.4.2 Convection Versus Diffusion

5.5 Mathematics of Diffusion

5.5.1 Steady State Diffusion – Fick’s First Law

5.5.1.1 An Example of Fick’s First Law – Steady State Diffusion

5.5.2 Non Steady State Diffusion – Fick’s Second Law

5.5.2.1 Solutions to Fick’s Second Law

5.5.2.1.1 Thin Film Solution

5.5.2.1.2 Mathematical Interlude

5.5.2.1.3 Semi-Infinite Solid Solution

5.5.2.1.4 Mathematical Interlude

5.5.2.1.5 Other Solutions for Semi-Infinite Solids

5.5.2.2 Long Time Solution – Homogenization

5.5.2.3 The Diffusion Length

Chapter 6 – Phase Equilibria

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Gibbs Phase Rule

6.2.1 Definitions

6.2.2 Equilibrium Among Phases – The Phase Rule

6.2.3 Applications of the Phase Rule

6.2.4 Construction of Phase Diagrams: Theory and Experiment

6.2.4.1 Theory

6.2.4.2 Experiment

6.2.5 The Tie Line Principle

6.2.6 The Lever Rule

6.2.7 Examples of Phase Equilibria

6.3 Nucleation and Growth of Phases

6.3.1 Thermodynamics of Phase Transformations

6.3.2 Nucleation

Chapter 7 – Mechanical Properties of Solids – Elasticity

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Elasticity Relationships

7.2.1 True versus Engineering Strain

7.2.2 The Nature of Elasticity and Young’s Modulus

7.3 An Analysis of Stress by the Equation of Motion

7.4 Hooke’s Law for Pure Dilatation and Pure Shear

7.5 Poisson’s Ratio

7.6 Relationship among E, ( and ?

7.7 Relationship among E, G and (

7.8 Resolving the Normal Forces

Chapter 8 – Mechanical Properties of Solids – Plasticity

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Plasticity Observations

8.3 The Role of Dislocations

8.4 The Deformation of Non-Crystalline Materials

8.4.1 Thermal Behavior of Amorphous Solids

8.4.2 Time Dependent Deformation of Amorphous Materials

8.4.3 Models for Network Solids

8.4.4 Elastomers

Chapter 9 – Electronic Structure of Solids

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Waves, Electrons and the Wave Function

9.2.1 Representation of Waves

9.2.2 Matter Waves

9.2.3 Superposition

9.2.4 Electron Waves

9.3 Quantum Mechanics

9.3.1 Normalization

9.3.2 Dispersion of Electron Waves and the Schroedinger Equation (SE)

9.3.3 Classical and QM Wave Equations

9.3.4 Solutions to the SE

9.3.4.1 Free Electron Solution to the SE

9.3.4.2 Strongly and Weakly Bound Electron Solution to the SE

9. 3.4.3 Periodic Solid Solution to the SE- The Kronig Penney Model

9.4 Electron Energy Band Representations

9.4.1 Parallel Band Picture

9.4.2 k Space Representations

9.4.3 Brillouin Zones

9.5 Real Energy Band Structures

9.6 Other Aspects of Electron Energy Band Structure

Chapter 10 – Electronic Properties of Materials

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Occupation of Electronic States

10.2.1 Density of States Function, DOS

10.2.2 The Fermi-Dirac Distribution Function

10.2.3 Occupancy of Electronic States

10.3 Position of the Fermi Energy

10.4 Electronic Properties of Metals: Conduction and Superconduction

10.4.1 Free Electron Theory for Electrical Conduction

10.4.2 Quantum Theory of Electronic Conduction

10.4.3 Superconductivity

10.5 Semiconductors

10.5.1 Intrinsic Semiconductors

10.5.2 Extrinsic Semiconductors

10.5.3 Semiconductor Measurements

10.6 Electrical Behavior of Organic Materials

Chapter 11 – Junctions and Devices and the Nanoscale

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Junctions

11.2.1 Metal-Metal Junctions

11.2.2 Metal-Semiconductor Junctions

11.2.3 Semiconductor-Semiconductor PN Junctions

11.3 Selected Devices

11.3.1 Passive Devices

11.3.2 Active Devices

11.3.2.1 Rectifiers

11.3.2.2 Photocells

11.3.2.3 Transistors

11.3.2.3.1 Bipolar Transistor

11.3.2.3.2 MOSFET

11.3.2.3.3 Organic Transistors

11.4 Nanostructures and Nanodevices

11.4.1 Heterojunction Nanostructures

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