# Description

Now in its eighth edition, Fundamentals of Thermodynamics continues to offer a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of classical thermodynamics, while retaining an engineering perspective. With concise, applications-oriented discussion of topics and self-test problems, this text encourages students to monitor their own learning. The eighth edition is updated with additional examples and end-of-chapter problems to increase student comprehension. In addition, Learning Objectives have been added to the beginning of each chapter.

This classic text provides a solid foundation for subsequent studies in fields such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer and statistical thermodynamics, and prepares students to effectively apply thermodynamics in the practice of engineering.

1 Introduction and Preliminaries 1

1.1 A Thermodynamic System and the Control Volume 2
1.2 Macroscopic versus Microscopic Points of View 5
1.3 Properties and State of a Substance 6
1.4 Processes and Cycles 6
1.5 Units for Mass Length Time and Force 8
1.6 Specific Volume and Density 10
1.7 Pressure 13
1.8 Energy 19
1.9 Equality of Temperature 22
1.10 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 22
1.11 Temperature Scales 23
1.12 Engineering Applications 24
Summary 28
Problems 29

2 Properties of a Pure Substance 39

2.1 The Pure Substance 40
2.2 The Phase Boundaries 40
2.3 The P–v–T Surface 44
2.4 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties 47
2.5 The Two-Phase States 49
2.6 The Liquid and Solid States 51
2.7 The Superheated Vapor States 52
2.8 The Ideal Gas States 55
2.9 The Compressibility Factor 59
2.10 Equations of State 63
2.11 Computerized Tables 64
2.12 Engineering Applications 65
Summary 68
Problems 69

3 First Law of Thermodynamics and Energy Equation 81

3.1 The Energy Equation 81
3.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics 84
3.3 The Definition of Work 85
3.4 Work Done at the Moving Boundary of a Simple Compressible System 90
3.5 Definition of Heat 98
3.6 Heat Transfer Modes 99
3.7 Internal Energy—a Thermodynamic Property 101
3.8 Problem Analysis and Solution Technique 103
3.9 The Thermodynamic Property Enthalpy 109
3.10 The Constant-Volume and Constant-Pressure Specific Heats 112
3.11 The Internal Energy Enthalpy and Specific Heat of Ideal Gases 114
3.12 General Systems That Involve Work 121
3.13 Conservation of Mass 123
3.14 Engineering Applications 125
Summary 132
Problems 135

4 Energy Analysis for a Control Volume 160

4.1 Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume 160
4.2 The Energy Equation for a Control Volume 163
4.4 Examples of Steady-State Processes 167
4.5 Multiple Flow Devices 180
4.6 The Transient Process 182
4.7 Engineering Applications 189
Summary 194
Problems 196

5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 216

5.1 Heat Engines and Refrigerators 216
5.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 222
5.3 The Reversible Process 225
5.4 Factors That Render Processes Irreversible 226
5.5 The Carnot Cycle 229
5.6 Two Propositions Regarding the Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle 231
5.7 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 232
5.8 The Ideal-Gas Temperature Scale 233
5.9 Ideal versus Real Machines 237
5.10 Engineering Applications 240
Summary 243
Problems 245

6 Entropy 258

6.1 The Inequality of Clausius 258
6.2 Entropy—a Property of a System 262
6.3 The Entropy of a Pure Substance 264
6.4 Entropy Change in Reversible Processes 266
6.5 The Thermodynamic Property Relation 271
6.6 Entropy Change of a Solid or Liquid 272
6.7 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas 273
6.8 The Reversible Polytropic Process for an Ideal Gas 277
6.9 Entropy Change of a Control Mass During an Irreversible Process 281
6.10 Entropy Generation and the Entropy Equation 282
6.11 Principle of the Increase of Entropy 285
6.12 Entropy as a Rate Equation 288
Summary 294
Problems 296

7 Second-Law Analysis for a Control Volume 315

7.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume 315
7.2 The Steady-State Process and the Transient Process 317
7.3 The Steady-State Single-Flow Process 326
7.4 Principle of the Increase of Entropy 330
7.5 Engineering Applications; Efficiency 333
7.6 Summary of General Control Volume Analysis 339
Summary 340
Problems 342

8 Exergy 362

8.1 Exergy Reversible Work and Irreversibility 362
8.2 Exergy and Second-Law Efficiency 374
8.3 Exergy Balance Equation 382
8.4 Engineering Applications 387
Summary 388
Problems 389

9 Power and Refrigeration Systems—with Phase Change 403

9.1 Introduction to Power Systems 404
9.2 The Rankine Cycle 406
9.3 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Rankine Cycle 409
9.4 The Reheat Cycle 414
9.5 The Regenerative Cycle and Feedwater Heaters 417
9.6 Deviation of Actual Cycles from Ideal Cycles 424
9.7 Combined Heat and Power: Other Configurations 430
9.8 Introduction to Refrigeration Systems 432
9.9 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle 433
9.10 Working Fluids for Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems 436
9.11 Deviation of the Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle from the Ideal Cycle 437
9.12 Refrigeration Cycle Configurations 439
9.13 The Absorption Refrigeration Cycle 442
Summary 443
Problems 444

10 Power and Refrigeration Systems—Gaseous Working Fluids 462

10.1 Air-Standard Power Cycles 462
10.2 The Brayton Cycle 463
10.3 The Simple Gas-Turbine Cycle with a Regenerator 470
10.4 Gas-Turbine Power Cycle Configurations 473
10.5 The Air-Standard Cycle for Jet Propulsion 477
10.6 The Air-Standard Refrigeration Cycle 480
10.7 Reciprocating Engine Power Cycles 483
10.8 The Otto Cycle 484
10.9 The Diesel Cycle 489
10.10 The Stirling Cycle 492
10.11 The Atkinson and Miller Cycles 492
10.12 Combined-Cycle Power and Refrigeration Systems 495
Summary 497
Problems 499

11 Gas Mixtures 513

11.1 General Considerations and Mixtures of Ideal Gases 513
11.2 A Simplified Model of a Mixture Involving Gases and a Vapor 521
11.3 The Energy Equation Applied to Gas–Vapor Mixtures 526
11.4 The Adiabatic Saturation Process 530
11.5 Engineering Applications—Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures and the Psychrometric Chart 532
Summary 539
Problems 540

12 Thermodynamic Relations 557

12.1 The Clapeyron Equation 557
12.2 Mathematical Relations for a Homogeneous Phase 561
12.3 The Maxwell Relations 563
12.4 Thermodynamic Relations Involving Enthalpy Internal Energy and Entropy 565
12.5 Volume Expansivity and Isothermal and Adiabatic Compressibility 571
12.6 Real-Gas Behavior and Equations of State 573
12.7 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Enthalpy at Constant Temperature 578
12.8 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Entropy at Constant Temperature 581
12.9 The Property Relation for Mixtures 585
12.10 Pseudopure Substance Models for Real Gas Mixtures 588
12.11 Engineering Applications—Thermodynamic Tables 593
Summary 596
Problems 598

13 Chemical Reactions 609

13.1 Fuels 609
13.2 The Combustion Process 613
13.3 Enthalpy of Formation 621
13.4 Energy Analysis of Reacting Systems 623
13.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy of Combustion; Heat of Reaction 630
13.7 The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Absolute Entropy 637
13.8 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems 638
13.9 Fuel Cells 643
13.10 Engineering Applications 647
Summary 652
Problems 653

14 Introduction to Phase and Chemical Equilibrium 670

14.1 Requirements for Equilibrium 670
14.2 Equilibrium Between Two Phases of a Pure Substance 672
14.3 Metastable Equilibrium 676
14.4 Chemical Equilibrium 677
14.5 Simultaneous Reactions 687
14.6 Coal Gasification 691
14.7 Ionization 692
14.8 Engineering Applications 694
Summary 697
Problems 698

15 Compressible Flow 708

15.1 Stagnation Properties 708
15.2 The Momentum Equation for a Control Volume 710
15.3 Forces Acting on a Control Surface 713
15.4 Adiabatic One-Dimensional Steady-State Flow of an Incompressible Fluid through a Nozzle 715
15.5 Velocity of Sound in an Ideal Gas 717
15.6 Reversible Adiabatic One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas through a Nozzle 720
15.7 Mass Flow Rate of an Ideal Gas through an Isentropic Nozzle 723
15.8 Normal Shock in an Ideal Gas Flowing through a Nozzle 728
15.9 Nozzle and Diffuser Coefficients 733
15.10 Nozzles and Orifices as Flow-Measuring Devices 736
Summary 740
Problems 745

Contents of Appendix 753
Appendix A SI Units: Single-State Properties 755
Appendix B SI Units: Thermodynamic Tables 775
Appendix C Ideal Gas Specific Heat 825
Appendix D Equations of State 827
Appendix E Figures 832
Appendix F English Unit Tables 837