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Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Food – Farid E. Ahmed – 1st Edition

Description

Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods is the first study of the screening methods and tools utilized for determining the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. Leading experts in science, medicine, and government agencies examine the significant research and clinical developments in bio-engineered agriculture to bring you an accurate risk assessment of GMOs in relation to human consumption, economics, and the environment. This book focuses on three high-profile biotechnological commercial aspects of GMO inclusion in the world market: insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, and virus resistance. It also identifies new GM food crops that are in the laboratory and may soon be on your table.

Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods looks at GMOs from the perspectives of both sides of the globe—the European Union and the United States Department of Agriculture—who each have their own set of rules and opinions regarding safety issues and marketing of bioengineered food products. This book looks at the government standards of scientific testing for GMOs, and several chapters specifically analyze current screening methods. This book also explores the impact of GMOs on farming, agricultural economy, pesticide control, and world famine.

Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods brings you current information on:

  • the risks and benefits of agricultural biotechnology—to people and the environment
  • the regulations and protocols of testing for GMOs that have been adopted by European and United States agencies
  • scientific techniques that test for GMOs, including certified reference materials (CRMs) and matrix-based, protein-based, and DNA-based methods of testing
  • the limitations of today’s GMO screening methods and the benefits of alternatives that may be used in the future
  • the long-term risks associated with gene flow of GMOs to other plants, specifically focusing on liabilities, regulatory climates, and intellectual property rights

Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods is generously enhanced with figures, tables, and graphs as well as references at the end of every chapter. The commercialization of agricultural biotechnology makes this text essential for scientists, planners, and students of food, agriculture and environmental science. Government officials and activists will find this book invaluable in debating current issues of agricultural biotechnology and food safety.

Table of Contents

About the Editor
Contributors
Preface

Chapter 1. Risk and Benefits of Agricultural Biotechnology
The Development of Biotechnology
Beginning of the Controversy About Biotechnology
Risk and Benefit Analysis
The Present Scope of Agricultural Biotechnology Products
Regulations on Growing Biotechnology Crops
Grower Adoption of Biotechnology Crops
Economics of Using Current Biotechnology Crops
The Concept of Substantial Equivalence and Its Impact on Product Liability and International Trade
Food Safety Issues of Biotechnology Products
Framework for Evaluating Environmental Effects of Current Biotechnology Crops
Gene Flow in Transgenic Crops
Gene Containment Strategies for Biotechnology Crops
Economic Consequences of Gene Flow from Biotechnology Crops
Effects of Biotechnology Crops on Nontarget Organisms
Environmental Consequences of Two Novel GM Organisms
Pesticide-Use Patterns
Resistance Management to Herbicide-Resistant and Insect-Resistant Plants
Agricultural Biotechnology in a Changing World

Chapter 2. Sampling for the Detection of Biotech Grains: A USDA Perspective
Introduction
Introduction to Sampling Theory
Conclusions

Chapter 3. Sampling for GMO Analysis: The European Perspective
Introduction
The Concept of Sampling and Currently Adopted Sampling Protocols
Limitations of the Currently Adopted Sampling Protocols
Sampling for GMO Detection/Quantification: Recommendations
Concluding Remarks

Chapter 4. Reference Materials and Standards
Introduction
Matrix-Based GMO CRMs
Pure Genomic DNA GMO CRMs
Pure Plasmid DNA GMO CRMs
Pure Protein GMO CRMs
Discussion

Chapter 5. Protein-Based Methods: Elucidation of the Principles
Introduction
Problems Associated with Developing Immunoassays for Food Proteins and Suggested Remedies
Western Blotting
Immunoassays
Conclusions

Chapter 6. Protein-Based Methods: Case Studies
Introduction
Foods: Processed and Finished
Grain and Seed
Discussion

Chapter 7. DNA-Based Methods for Detection and Quantification of GMOs: Principles and Standards
Introduction
The Polymerase Chain Reaction
The Future of GMO Testing
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
DNA Microarrays
Biosensors

Chapter 8. DNA-Based Methods for GMO Detection: Historical Developments and Future Prospects
Southern Hybridization/Slot or Dot Blotting Techniques
Polymerase Chain Reaction Applications
Gene Expression and Microarray Technology
DNA-Based Biosensors
Conclusions

Chapter 9. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods
Introduction: The Limitations of Applying Current GMO Screening Methods
Introduction to Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Roundup Ready Soybean Detection Case Study
Quality Assurance Issues
Future Considerations

Chapter 10. Other Methods for GMO Detection and Overall Assessment of the Risks
Metabolic Profiling
Proteomics
Gene Fluorescent Proteins As a Marker in Transgenic Plants
Concerns About Gene Flow, Liabilities, Regulatory Climates, and Intellectual Property Rights
Assessment of Safety Issues
Conclusions

Index
Reference Notes Included

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